Delaware is considered to be horrible for special education by many around the country. The reason for this could be due to Response To Intervention.
Under federal law, Child Find is an obligation for all public schools in the United States of America. Wrightslaw describes Child Find as the following:
Child Find requires all school districts to identify, locate and evaluate all children with disabilities, regardless of the severity of their disabilities. This obligation to identify all children who may need special education services exists even if the school is not providing special education services to the child.
The US Department of Education came up with something called Response To Intervention (RTI). This process does not work effectively at all for potential students with disabilities. In Delaware, the whole RTI process takes 24 weeks until a suggestion is made, if needed, for an evaluation for special education services. That is over six months because it is 24 weeks of school time. While that may not seem like a long time for some, for the student with disabilities it can be a lifetime. The large problem with RTI is many schools use it based on how a student is doing academically. Some children with disabilities are very smart but the neurological wiring may not allow them to focus or have motivation to do well in school. If the classroom is out of control, this magnifies for the student with disabilities. Many of these students are perceived as “behavior problems” but if they do well academically, it is difficult for them to get an Individualized Education Program (IEP). Add in other factors, such as low-income or poverty status, bullying, and violence in their environment, and this is a cauldron of problems boiling over.
Title 14 in Delaware is very specific about what Response to Intervention is:
Under federal law, Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) is mandatory for students with an IEP. Using the Wrightslaw definition:
In a nutshell, FAPE is an individualized educational program that is designed to meet the child’s unique needs and from which the child receives educational benefit, and prepares them for further education, employment, and independent living.
The problem is getting students to this point. At the Delaware Charter School Accountability Committee meeting today, two charters brought up the RTI process in how they identify potential special education students. But the problems mount because of the time process. If schools are using RTI to identify students for special education, it is a minimum of six months before the RTI system reaches the point where special education evaluation can happen in Delaware. Schools should be looking at other factors. I’m not saying RTI is bad. It can be very helpful for instruction. But using this as a determining factor for special education services can cause a student to lose a whole year. Then add the timeframes for the evaluation, getting parent permission, convening an initial IEP meeting, and then getting to the point of actually drafting the IEP, it could very well be a whole school year.
While I don’t think any school should be over evaluating students for IEPs for additional funding, the far greater danger is in under evaluating. If the RTI process works for academic support, but the child does not have FAPE, it is not addressing the true needs of the student. A student with disabilities can be brilliant, but if their neurological disability gets in the way of that, it impacts their education. This is why I oppose many of the tests schools use to determine eligibility for special education. A simple IQ test is not going to give you answers. Many students with disabilities suffer from large classroom sizes without enough support. For a sensory mind, this is like a torture chamber for these children. But get them in a small group with RTI, where the focus is more centralized to their needs, and we have a much different story. But RTI is not an all-day event. So when the student is back in the general curriculum environment, that’s when teachers see the true natures of disabilities manifest themselves. If a student appears to be smart, but doesn’t seem to be in control of their actions, this is the time to get an evaluation. Yes, they are expensive for schools. But how much time is spent on the RTI process that may or may not get this student results until another school year in most cases? RTI as a system costs schools tons of money, time, staffing and resources.
Until Delaware schools truly get this, both charter and district alike, we will continue to bang our heads against the wall and say “We don’t know how to fix this.” Add to this the even more burdensome “standards-based” IEPs which are rolling out this year, and we have a special education nightmare on our hands. I’ve said this a million times: intelligence is not the sole factor for special education. It could be as simple as a student having sensory toys, or additional transition time, or even training for staff at a more in-depth level. There are so many things that can be done with special education that are not financially problematic, but common sense. But expecting a special needs child to perform at the same levels as their peers when the DOE and schools have not done their essential legwork in truly identifying these students is a lesson in futility. They may never perform at that level, but until schools do the right thing with special education and stop doing all this time-wasting nonsense, we will never know. And let me reiterate: when I say performing at the same level as their peers, I do NOT mean standardized testing. All the standardized tests actually take away from the uniqueness of the individual child and says “We want all of you to be the same.” It is a demeaning and humiliating experience for all involved when we use a test to measure success.